Andrology is the opposite of gynecology, so it is the study of health issues afflicting men, with an emphasis on infertility and sexual dysfunction, male specific urological issues are also dealt with. A specialist in this field is called and andrologist.
Andrology is not well established or recognized as a medical specialty in most countries. In other countries, andrology is viewed as just a sub specialty within endocrinology. Andrology does need to be recognized because many faced with fertility or sexual issues have almost no medical options, some men end up consulting with a gynecologist, especially for infertility problems.
Health issues specific to men that andrology addresses include erectile dysfunction, impotence, andropause, low sperm count, sperm immobility, male menopause and male contraception. Drugs or surgical intervention are used to address these issues. Steroids or antibiotics are the most commonly used drugs which can improve the quality of the sperm. Viagra® is a popular drug to treat impotence. Surgical procedures can clear the blocked ducts that may have been affecting sperm production. By the time a man reaches his mid-fifties, testosterone levels begin to fall and cause depression, lethargy, impotence, insomnia, mood swings and decreased interest in sex. Hormone replacement restores the testosterone balance.
A vasectomy is the most effective and often permanent male contraception method carried out as a surgical procedure where the path between the testicles and the penis is blocked, thus avoiding sperm from leaving the testicles. A vasovasostomy can reverse the vasectomy, but sometimes the sperm flow cannot be restored.