The body is capable of self regulating itself to maintain optimal blood glucose levels through the balancing act of blood sugar regulation. The pancreas carries out most of the blood sugar regulation. It produces two hormones, insulin and glucagon which are central to the blood sugar regulation.
Diabetes is a condition whereby the pancreas is not working properly and cannot produce insulin, thus blood sugar levels are not being regulated. The imbalance caused by this is very harmful to the rest of the body. This is why diabetics often have to take blood sugar regulation into their own hands, monitoring it, adjusting their lifestyles if necessary and sometimes administering prescribed insulin.
Normal blood glucose levels for adults are between 65 and 104 mg/dL, blood sugar regulations ensures that these levels are maintained as a fall or increase beyond the normal levels is detrimental to health. A person usually can reach the low of 65mg/dL when they are fasting or when they are very hungry. 104 mg/dL can be reached after consuming lots of food, this level must fall within the next hours.
The pancreas is located below the stomach and aids in digestion. As you eat, the pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream. The insulin converts glucose contained in the food into glycogen, which the body stores for energy use. The other hormone, glucagon, converts glycogen back into glucose when blood glucose falls to a low level. This often happens during sleep or when a person has not consumed food in a while.