Distillation is a way removing microscopic contaminants from water as well as dissolved minerals like calcium and iron. The process of distillation involves the boiling of water until it turns into steam. The steam is allowed to cool down so that it condenses again and turns back to its liquid form. This purified form of water is called distilled water. Distilled water should only be composed of hydrogen and oxygen molecules and nothing else. It should have a PH level of 7 and have no other minerals, gases and contaminants in it.
The process of distillation relies on the simple idea that majority of solid matter is heavier than water molecules. During the process of heating water inside a distiller, all of the dissolved solids in the liquid like salt, calcium, iron and any bacteria will remain solid while the water is converted into steam. Since steam is much lighter, it is drawn out and then condensed. Distilled water has a characteristically bland taste because all of the minerals, which actually give water flavor, have been removed.
Distilled water is very safe to drink but majority of its use is usually for research where water purity is very important. It is also used for industrial purposes when mineral deposits could actually contribute to the damage of machinery over the course of its operations. Distilled water is also recommended for steam irons as a way of preventing the buildup of calcium in the heating elements.
There is some controversy regarding the consumption of distilled water. Some say that distilled water is good for the body because it has no impurities and helps flush away excess minerals in the body. The other camp, on the other hand, says that distilled water absorbs the essential minerals from the body and leaves it more vulnerable.