Informed consent is usually found in medical cases when it is necessary to obtain the permission of an individual in order to do something that could possibly endanger the individual. An informed consent is a legal concept that involves an individual authorizing something to be done when presented with all the pertinent, relevant information with regards to the act and is in possession of all reasoning faculties.
The idea of informed consent began during the Nuremberg Trials when it was revealed by evidence and testimonies that prisoners held by the Nazis were subjected to treatments and trials without informing aforementioned prisoners if what was to be done and obtaining permission to include them in the trial or treatment. After this was done, various forms of informed consent laws were instituted to ensure that this was never to happen again.
Informed consent is highly significant when it comes to patients who undergo possibly dangerous treatments or treatments that have unintended side effects. People who undergo clinical trials for a new drug or method of medication are required to provide informed consent in order to ensure that they alone are liable for their actions given that they have been informed of all the necessary facts.
In order to prove that informed consent was not given, an individual must prove one of two conditions. The first condition being that the individual was not in possession of reasoning faculties to make a rational decision and the second condition being that relevant information was withheld from the individual, information that was crucial in obtaining informed consent.