Irony is a word that has its origin in the Greek word that “one who dissembles.” There are several kinds of irony, with each one describing a difference between what is real and what is just an appearance.
Verbal irony is an irony that revolves around the figures of speech. There are actually several types of verbal irony.
Sarcasm is a type of irony where the speaker actually means the exact opposite of what he says. Sarcasm is classified as an irony because it is the reverse of what is actually said that is meant.
Equivocation is also a type of irony where the speaker says a statement that is actually the truth if it is understood by those who heard it correctly. But at the same time it is said, the goal is to do all the things possible in order to be assured that it will actually be misunderstood.
Dramatic irony happens when the person – either a narrator or author – shares with his audience certain information about the situation a particular character is in, but it is something the character is not aware of. One way they can do this is by using portents and foreshadowing. Another way to do this is by allowing the audience to witness certain acts or events that the character does not know about or not privy to.
Situational irony happens when the expectations that are valid, which is either the character’s expectation or the audience’s – looks like it is certain but in actuality it fails to happen, which results in a type of contradiction.