A court is only allowed to hear certain cases that fall into their authority, which refers to their limited jurisdiction. Also referred to as special jurisdiction, limited jurisdiction is given to courts that exert their authority from the law as provided for by a statute or the Constitution.
The limited jurisdiction of a court gives it the authority to pass judgment on cases that are subject to their jurisdiction. Each court has its own limited jurisdiction, such as a federal court having authority only over federal or national issues contrary to state courts that have authority only over state or local issues. The ability to preside over a case is provided for in the law. For example, the Constitution provides for the authority of the Supreme Court, Federal Apellate Courts, and state courts. Ergo, limited jurisdiction is defined by the law.
In an exercise of limited jurisdiction, a court can only pass judgment over a case if it meets certain conditions. A federal court can only preside over a case if it contests a federal law or if it involves individuals from various states and an amount of more than $10, 000 in accordance with limited jurisdiction. State courts can only preside over cases that involve state laws or statutes. Due to limited jurisdiction, a court cannot preside over a case if it does not meet the necessary conditions of the court. Thus, a state court cannot preside over a case that is under the limited jurisdiction of a federal court and vice versa.