A lobotomy is a surgical technique that involves making an incision in the brain's frontal lobe, severing several nerve tracts.
This procedure was used to pacify aggressive mental patients, as well as to treat disorders including schizophrenia and clinical depression.
Between 1939 and 1951, over 18,000 lobotomies were performed in the United States.
Egas Moniz, the physician who pioneered the practice, won a Nobel Prize for his efforts.
Lobotomies have now fallen out of use, as doctors use various drugs and psychological therapies to treat mental illnesses.
Famous recipients of lobotomies include actress Frances Farmer and Rosemary Kennedy,